Bio-Physical Interactions and Feedbacks in The Tropics
Tropical oceans offer an interesting contrast in their zonal and meridional dynamics and thermodynamics with interacting coupled climate modes. Much progress has been made in the dominant ENSO signal in terms of process and predictive understanding as well as ecosystem and biogeochemical responses and bio-physical feedbacks. Many interesting questions still remain when it comes to the lead-lag relations between ecosystem-BGC responses and feedbacks at ENSO and decadal timescales with a potential for ecosystem-BGC to diagnose ENSO and decadal variability ahead of the physical signatures of these changes. The Indian and Atlantic Oceans interact with ENSO but also have their own intrinsic coupled modes. Due to the differences in the dynamics and thermodynamics, they offer interesting regional laboratories for ecosystem-BGC responses with relatively different roles for solubility and biological pumps. The discussion will focus on tropical ocean interactions and the associated ecosystem-BGC responses and feedbacks as well as a way forward for contrasting the three oceans. Some lessons from comparing the the carbon-to-chlorophyll ratios across the eastern and western Pacific as well as the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans will also be discussed.