June-Yi Lee

June-Yi Lee
Associate Project Leader
Research Group
Earth System Predictability
  • Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, Feb 2003.
    • Dissertation: Assessment of Potential Seasonal Predictability with a Multi-Model Dynamical-Statistical Ensemble System
  • Master of Science in Atmospheric Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, 1999.
  • Bachelor of Science in Earth Science Education, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea, 1997.
Work Experience
  • September 2015 - Present: Assistant Professor, Research Center for Climate Sciences, Pusan National University
  • August 2013 – August 2015: Brainpool Professor, Research Center for Climate Sciences, Pusan National University
  • October 2011 – 2015: WMO WWRP/THORPEX/WCRP Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Prediction Working Group Member
  • November 2011 - Present: WMO WWRP/THORPEX/YOTC MJO Task Force Member
  • August 2010 – Present: Research coordinator of the IntraSeasonal Variability Hindcast Experiment (ISVHE) international project supported by CLIVAR and NOAA CTB
  • August 2005 – July 2013: Research coordinator of the APEC Climate Center (APCC)/Climate Prediction and its Application to Society (CliPAS) international project
  • December 2012 – July 2013: Associate Researcher, International Pacific Research Center (IPRC), School of Ocean, Earth Science, and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawaii<
  • May 2008 – November 2012: Assistant Researcher, International Pacific Research Center (IPRC), School of Ocean, Earth Science, and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawaii
  • August 2005 – April 2008: Post-doctoral research scientist, IPRC, SOEST, University of Hawaii
  • August 2003 – July 2005: Post-doctoral research scientist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland
Research Interests
  • Earth system predictability including not only physical variables but also biogeochemical cycle on intraseasonal-interannual-to-interdecadal time scales
  • Near-term climate predictability, prediction, and projection
  • Paleomonsoon variability
  • Atmospheric teleconnection associated with the trans-basin variability


  1. J.-Y. Lee, X. Fu, and B. Wang, 2016: Predictability and prediction of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: A review on progress and current status. In the third edition of the Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, C.-P. Chang et al. (ads). World Scientific, pp385, ISBN: 978-981-3200-90-6.
  2. M. C. Wheeler, H.-J. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and J. C. Gottschalck, 2016: Real-tiime forecasting of modes of tropical intraseasonal variability: the Madden-Julian and boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation. In the third edition of the Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, C.-P. Chang et al. (ads). World Scientific, pp385, ISBN: 978-981-3200-90-6.
  3. Jing-Jia Luo, C. Yuan, W. Sasaki, S. Behera, Y. Masumoto, T. Yamagata, J.-Y. Lee, and S. Masson, 2016: Current status of intraseasonal-seasonal-to-interannual prediction of the Indo-Pacific climate. In Info-Pacific Climate Variability and Predictability, S. Behera and T. Yamagata (Eds). World Scientific, pp324, ISBN:978-981-4696-61-6.
  4. June-Yi Lee and Bin Wang, 2012: Seasonal climate predictability of atmospheric circulation. In Climate Models, Leonard M. Druyan (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0135-2, InTech, pp. 336, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/seasonal-climate-predictability-of-atmospheric-circulation
  5. Changma White Book, 2011: Kyong-Hwan Seo and June-Yi Lee (Eds), Korean Meteorological Administration, pp 250
  6. Lau, William K.-M., Kyu-Myong Kim, and June-Yi Lee, 2004: Interannual variability, global teleconnection, and potential predictability associated with the Asian summer monsoon. In East Asian Monsoon. Ed. C.-P. Chang. World Scentific Series on Meteorology of East Asia.

Refereed publications

  1. Influences of Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation on Heat Waves in Monsoon Asia, PC Hsu, JY LeeKJ Ha, CH Tsou, Journal of Climate, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0505.1 (2017)
  2. J.-E. Chu, B. Wang, J.-Y. Lee, and K.-J. Ha*, 2017: Boreal summer intraseasonal phases identified by nonlinear multivariate empirical orthogonal function-based self-organizing map (ESOM) analysis. J. Climate in press. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0660.1
  3. J.-Y. Lee et al., 2017: the long-term variability of Changma in the East Asian summer monsoon system: a review and revisit. Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci., in press. Doi:10.1007/s13143-017-0032-5 
  4. K.-J. Ha*, J.-E. Chu, J.-Y. Lee, and K.-S. Yun, 2017: Interbasin coupling between the tropical Indian and Pacific Ocean on inter annual timescale: observation and CMIP5 reproduction. Clim. Dyn., 48, 459-475. Doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3087-6 
  5. Ding, R., J. Li, Y.-H. Tseng, K.-J. Ha, S. Zhao, and J.-Y. Lee, 2016: Interdecadal change in the lagged relationship between the Pacific-South American pattern and ENSO. Climate Dyn, 47, 2867-2884. Doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3002-1
  6. Yun, K.-S., Y.-W. Seo, K.-J. Ha*, J.-Y. Lee, and A. Kitoh, 2016: The seasonally varying effect of the Tibetan Plateau on Northern Hemispheric blocking frequency and amplitude. Climate Dyn, 47, 2527-2541. Doi:10.1007/s00382-016-2981-2 
  7. Choi, J., S.-W. Son, K.-H. Seo, J.-Y. Lee, and H.-S. Kang, 2016: Potential for long-lead prediction of the western North Pacific monsoon circulation beyond seasonal time scales. GRL43, 1736-1743. Doi:10.1002/2016GL067902
  8. Chen, W., J.-Y. Lee*, K.-J. Ha, K.-S. Yun, and R. Lu, 2016: Intensification of the Western North Pacific Anticyclone response to the short decaying El Nino event due to greenhouse warming. J. Climate, 29, 3607-3627. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0195.1
  9. Hsu, P.-C.*, J.-Y. Lee, and K.-J. Ha, 2016: Influence of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation on rainfall extremes in southern China, Int. J. Climatol., 36, 1403-1412. Doi:10.1002/joc.4433
  10. Choi, J., S.-W. Son*, Y.-G. Ham, J.-Y. Lee, and H.-M. Kim, 2016: Seasonal-to-interannual prediction skills of near-surface air temperature in the CMIP5 decadal hindcast experiments. J. Climate, 29, 1511-1527. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0182.1
  11. Lee, J.-Y. and K.-J. Ha*, 2015: Understanding of interdecadal changes in variability and predictability of the Northern Hemisphere summer tropical-extratropical teleconnection. J. Clim., 28, 8634-8647. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0154.1
  12. Lee, S.-S.*, B. Wang, D. E. Waliser, J. M. Neena, and J.-Y. Lee, 2015: Predictability and prediction skill of the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation in the Intraseasonal Variability Hindcast Experiment. Clim. Dyn., 45, 2123-2135. Doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2461-5
  13. Chen, W., J.-Y. Lee, R. Lu, B. Dong, and K.-J. Ha*, 2014: Intensified impact of Tropical Atlantic SST on the Western North Pacific summer climate under a weakened Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Clim. Dyn., 45, 2033-2046. Doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2454-4.
  14. Lee, J.-Y., B. Wang, K.-H. Seo*, K.-J. Ha, A. Kitoh, and J. Liu, 2015: Effects of mountain uplift on global monsoon precipitation. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 275-290. Doi:10.1007/s13143-015-0077-2
  15. Seo, K.-H.*, J.-H. Son, J.-Y. Lee, and H.-S. Park, 2015: Northern East Asian monsoon precipitation revealed by airmass variability and its prediction. J. Climate, 28, 6221-6223. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00526.1
  16. Min, S.-K., S.-W. Son, K.-H. Seo, J.-S. Kug*, S.-I. An, Y.-S. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, B.-M. Kim, J.-W. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and M.-I. Lee, 2015: Changes in weather and climate extremes over Korea and possible causes: A review. Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 103-121. Doi:10.1007/s13143-015-0066-5
  17. Alessandri, A.*, A. Borrelli, A. Cherchi, S. Materia, A. Navarra, J.-Y. Lee, and B. Wang, 2015: Prediction of Indian summer monsoon onset using dynamical sub-seasonal forecasts: effects of realistic initialization of the atmosphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 143, 778-793. Doi:10.1175/MWR-D-14-00187.1
  18. Fu, X.*, W. Wang, J.-Y. Lee, B. Wang, K. Kikuchi, J. Xu, J. Li, and S. Weaver, 2015: Distinctive roles of air-sea coupling on different MJO events: A new perspective revealed from the DYNAMO/CINDY Field Campaign. Mon. Wea. Rev., 143, 794-812. Doi:10.1175/MWR-D-14-00221.1
  19. Jeong, H.-I., J.-B. Ahn, J.-Y. Lee* A. Alessandri, and H. H. Hendon, 2015: Interdecadal change of interannual variability and predictability of two types of ENSO. Clim. Dyn., 44, 1073-1091. Doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2127-3
  20. Wang, B., J.-Y. Lee*, and B. Xiang, 2015: Asian summer monsoon rainfall predictability: A predictable mode analysis. Clim. Dyn., 44, 61-74. Doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2218-1
  21. Seo, Y.-W., H.-J. Kim, K.-S. Yun, J.-Y. Lee, K.-J. Ha*, and J.-Y. Moon, 2014: Future change of extreme temperature climate indices over East Asia with uncertainties estimation in the CMIP5. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci., 50(1), 609-624.
  22. Moon, H. J., B.-H. Kim, H.-E. Oh, J.-Y. Lee, and K.-J. Ha*, 2014: Future change using the CIMP5 MME and Best models: I. Near and long-term future change of temperature and precipitation over East Asia. Atmos. 24(3), 403-417.
  23. Alessandri, A.*, M. De Felice, N. Zeng, A. Mariotti, Y. Pan, A. Cherchi, J.-Y. Lee, B. Wang, K.-J. Ha, P. Ruti, and V. Artale, 2014: Robust assessment of the expansion and retreat of Mediterranean climate in the 21st century. Nature-Scientific Reports, 4, doi:10.1038/sprep07211.
  24. Neena, J. M.*, X. Jiang, D. Waliser, J.-Y. Lee, and B. Wang, 2014: Eastern Pacific intraseasonal variability: A predictability perspective. J. Clim. 27, 8869-8883.
  25. Xiang, B., B. Wang, J. Li, M. Zhao, and J.-Y. Lee, 2014: Understanding the anthropogenically forced change of equatorial Pacific trade winds in coupled climate models. J. Clim., 27, 8510-8526.
  26. Yun, K.-S., Y.-W. Seo, K.-J. Ha, J.-Y. Lee*, and Y. Kajikawa, 2014: Interdecadal changes in the Asian winter monsoon variability and its relationship with ENSO and AO. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 531-540 (2014. 8)
  27. Yun, K.-S., J.-Y. Lee, and K.-J. Ha*, 2014: Recent intensification of the South and East Asian monsoon contrast associated with an increase in the zonal tropical SST gradient. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 8104-8116
  28. Jia, XiaoJing, J.-Y. Lee*, L. Hai, A. Alessandri, and K.-J. Ha, 2014: Interdecadal change in the Northern Hemisphere seasonal climate prediction skill: Part II. Predictablity and Prediction Skill. Clim. Dyn., 43, 1611-1630
  29. Jia, XiaoJing, J.-Y. Lee*, L. Hai, A. Alessandri, and K.-J. Ha, 2013: Interdecadal change in the Northern Hemisphere seasonal climate prediction skill: Part I. The leading forced mode of atmospheric circulation. Clim. Dyn., 43, 1595-1609
  30. Chu, J. E., K.-J. Ha, J.-Y. Lee*, B. Wang, B.-H. Kim, and E. C. Chung, 2013: Future change of the Indian Ocean basin0wide and dipole modes in the CMIP5. Clim. Dyn. in press, Doi:10.1007/s00382-013-2002-7
  31. Xiang, B.*, B. Wang, A. Lauer, J.-Y. Lee, and Q. Ding, 2013: Upper tropospheric warming intensifies sea surface warming. Clim. Dyn. in press, Doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1928-0
  32. Neena, M. J.*, J.-Y. Lee, D. Waliser, B. Wang, and X. Jiang, 2014: Predictability of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the Intraseasonal Variability Hindcast Experiment (ISVHE). J. Clim., 4531-4543.
  33. Lee, J.-Y., B. Wang, K.-H. Seo* J.-S. Kug, Y.-S. Choi, Y. Kosaka, and K.-J. Pa, 2014: Future change of Northern Hemisphere summer tropical-extratropical teleconnection in CMIP5 models. J. Clim. in press. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00261.1
  34. Chowdary, J. S., R. Attada, J.-Y. Lee*, Y. Kosaka, J.-J. Luo, C. Gnanaseelan, A. Parekh, and D.-Y. Lee, 2014: Seasonal prediction of distinct climate anomalies in the summer 2010 over the tropical Indian Ocean and South Asia. J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 92, 1-16
  35. Wang, B., S.-Y. Yim, J.-Y. Lee*, J. Liu, and K.-J. Ha, 2014: Future change of Asian-Australian monsoon under RCP4.5 anthropogenic warming scenario. Clim Dyn, 83-100, doi: 10.1007/s00382-013-1769-x. 
  36. Lee, J.-Y., and B. Wang*, 2014: Future change of global monsoon in the CMIP5. Clim Dyn, 101-119 Doi: 10.1007/s00382-012-1564-0.
  37. Sooraj, K. P.*, K.-H. Seo, B. Wang, and J.-Y. Lee, 2012: Recent tendency to drought events over the Central Indian region: Pacific Ocean origin and insights from moisture budgets. International J. of Climatology, 33, 2781-2798.
  38. Fu, X.*, J.-Y. Lee, P. C. Hsu, H. Taniguchi, B. Wang, W. Wang, and S. Weaver, 2013: Multi-model MJO forecasting during DYNAMO/CINDY period. Clim Dyn, 41, 1067-1081  
  39. Fu, X.*, J.-Y. Lee, B. Wang, W. Wang, and F. Vitart, 2013: Intraseasonal forecasting of Asian summer monsoon in four operational and research models. J. Climate, 26, 4186-4203  
  40. Lee, J.-Y., S.-S. Lee, B. Wang, K.-J. Ha*, and J.-G. Jhun, 2013: Seasonal prediction and predictability of the Asian winter temperature variability. Clim Dyn, 41, 573-587
  41. Lee, S.-S., J.-Y. Lee*, K.-J. Ha, B. Wang, A. Kitoh, Y. Kajikawa, and M. Abe, 2013: Role of Tibetan Plateau on climatological annual variation of mean atmospheric circulation and storm track activity. J. Climate, 26, 5270-5286.
  42. Moon, J.-Y., B. Wang, K.-J. Ha*, and J.-Y. Lee, 2013: Teleconnections associated with Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon intraseasonal oscillation. Clim Dyn, 40 (11-12), 2761-2774.
  43. Shen, S. S. P., J.-Y. Lee, and W. K. M. Lau, 2013: Bayesian optimal blending and credible interval estimation for satellite and ground rainfall observations. Adv. Adapt. Data. Anal., 5(2), 1350006.
  44. Wang, B.*, B. Xiang, and J.-Y. Lee, 2013: Subtropical high predictability establishes a promising way for monsoon and tropical storm prediction. PNAS, 110 (8), 2718-2722, doi:10.1073/pnas.1214626110.
  45. Liu, J., B. Wang, M. Cane*, S.-Y. Yim, and J.-Y. Lee, 2013: Divergent global precipitation changes induced by natural versus anthropogenic forcing. Nature, 493, 656-659. Doi:10.1038/nature11784.
  46. Lee, J.-Y.*, B. Wang, M. Wheeler, X. Fu, D. Waliser, and I.-S. Kang, 2013: Real-time multivariate indices for the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation over the Asian summer
  47. Kosaka, Y.*, J. S. Chowdary, S.-P. Xie, Y.-M. Min, and J.-Y. Lee, 2012: Limitations of seasonal predictability for summer climate over East Asia and the Northwestern Pacific. J. Climate, 25, 7574-7589. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00009.1
  48. Yeh, S.-W., Y.-G. Ham*, J.-Y. Lee, 2012: Changes in the tropical Pacific SST trend from CMIP3 to CMIP5 and its implication of ENSO. J. Climate, 25, 7764-7771. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00304.1
  49. Ha, K.-J., J.-E. Chu, J.-Y. Lee*, B. Wang et al., 2012: What causes cool summer over northern Central Asia, East Asia, and central North America during 2009? Environ. Res. Lett., 7. 44015, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044015
  50. Jia, X.*, H. Lin, J.-Y. Lee, and B. Wang, 2012: Season-dependent forecast skill of the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns over the Pacific North-American region. J. Climate, 25, 7248-7265, Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00522.1
  51. Liu, Jian*, B. Wang, S.-Y. Yim, J.-Y. Lee, J.-G. Jhun, and K.-J. Ha, 2012: What drives the global summer monsoon over the past millennium? Clim. Dyn., 39, 1063-1072
  52. Kug, J.-S., Y.-G. Ham*, J.-Y. Lee, and F.-F. Jin, 2012: Improved simulation of two types of El Nino in CMIP5 models. Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034002, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034002
  53. Wang, H., B. Wang, F. H., Q. Ding, and J.-Y. Lee, 2012: Interdecadal change of the boreal summer circumglobal teleconnection (1958-2010). Geophys Res Lett, 39, L12704, doi:10.1029/2012GL052371
  54. Lee, S.-S., J.-Y. Lee, B. Wang, K.-J. Ha*, K.-Y. Heo et al. 2012: Interdecadal changes in the storm track activity over the North Pacific and North Atlantic. Clim Dyn, 39, 313-327.
  55. Jeong, H.-I., D.-Y. Lee, K. Ashok*, J.-B. Ahn, J.-Y. Lee et al. 2012: Assessment of the APCC coupled MME suite in predicting the distinctive climate impacts of two flavors of ENSO during boreal winter. Clim Dyn, 39, 475-493
  56. Hsu, P.-C.*, T. Li, Y.-C. Lin, M.-M. Lu, and J.-Y. Lee, 2012: A spatial-temporal projection method for seasonal prediction of spring rainfall in Northern Taiwan. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 90(2), 179-190. 
  57. Sohn, S.-J., Y.-M. Min, J.-Y. Lee*, C.-Y. Tam et al. 2012: Assessment of probabilistic long-lead prediction of the APCC multi-model system and statistical model for the Asian summer monsoon precipitation (1983-2010). JGR, 117, D04102, doi:10.1029/2011JD016308
  58. Lee, S.-S., J.-Y. Lee, B. Wang, F.-F. Jin, W.-J. Lee, and K.-J. Ha*, 2011: A comparison of climatological subseasonal variations in the wintertime storm track activity between the North Pacific and Atlantic: local energetics and moisture effect. Clim Dyn, 37, 2455-2469
  59. Lee, June-Yi*, B. Wang, Q. Ding, K.-J. Ha, J.-B. Ahn, A. Kumar, B. Stern, and O. Alves, 2011: How predictable is the northern hemisphere summer upper-tropospheric circulation? Clim Dyn, 37, 1189-1203, 
  60. Fu, Xiouhua*, B. Wang, J.-Y. Lee, W. Wang, and Li. Gao, 2011: Sensitivity of dynamical intraseasonal prediction skills to different initial conditions. Mon Wea Rev, 139, 2572-2592 
  61. Seo, Kyong-Hwan, Jun-Hyeok Seo, and June-Yi Lee, 2011: A new look at Changma, Atmos Kor Meteor Soc, 21(1), 109-121
  62. Lee, S.-S., June-Yi Lee*, K.-J. Ha, B. Wang. J. K. E. Schemm, 2011: Deficiencies and possibilities for long-lead coupled climate prediction of the Western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon. Clim Dyn, 36, 1173-1188, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0832-0. 
  63. Lee, June-Yi*, B. Wang, I.-S. Kang, J. Shukla et al., 2010: How are seasonal prediction skills related to models’ performance on mean state and annual cycle? Clim. Dyn, 35, 267-283, DOI 10.1007/s00382-010-0857-4. 
  64. Chowdary, J.*, S.-P. Xie, J.-Y. Lee, Y. Kosaka, and B. Wang, 2010: Predictability of summer Northwest Pacific climate in eleven coupled model hindcasts: local and remote forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22121, doi:10.1029/2010JD014595. 
  65. Wang, Bin*, June-Yi Lee, J. Shukla, I.-S. Kang, C.-K. Park and et al., 2009: Advance and prospectus of seasonal prediction: Assessment of APCC/CliPAS 14-model ensemble retrospective seasonal prediction (1980-2004). Clim. Dyn. 33, 93-117. 
  66. Fu, X.*, B. Wang, Q. Bao, P. Liu, and J.-Y. Lee, 2009: Impacts of initial conditions on monsoon intraseasonal forecasting, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08801, doi:10.1029/2009GL037166. 
  67. Wang, Bin*, June-Yi Lee, I.-S. Kang, J. Shukla, J.-S. Kug, A. Kumar, J. Schemm, J.-J. Luo, T. Yamagata, and C.-K. Park, 2008: How accurately do coupled climate models predict the leading modes of Asian-Australian monsoon interannual variability? Clim. Dyn. 30, 605-619, 
  68. Kug, J.-S.*, J.-Y. Lee, I.-S. Kang, B. Wang, and C.-K. Park, 2008: Optimal multi-model ensemble method in seasonal climate prediction. Asian Pacific J. Atmos. Sci, 44, 259-267. 
  69. Kug, J.-S.*, J.-Y. Lee, and I.-S. Kang, 2008: Systematic error correction of dynamical seasonal prediction using a stepwise pattern project method (SPPM). Mon. Wea. Rev. 136, 3501-3512. 
  70. Kim, H.-M.*, I.-S. Kang, B. Wang, and J.-Y. Lee, 2008: Interannual variations of the boreal summer Intraseasonal variability predicted by ten atnmosphere-ocean coupled models. Clim. Dyn., 30. 485-496. 
  71. Kug, J.-S.*, J.-Y. Lee, and I.-S. Kang, 2007: Global sea surface temperature prediction using multi-model ensemble. Mon Wea Rev, 135, 3239-3247. 
  72. Kug, J.-S.*, I.-S. Kang, J.-Y. Lee, and J.-G. Jhun, 2004: A statistical approach to Indian Ocean sea surface temperature prediction using a dynamical ENSO prediction. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31:09212,doi:10.1029. 
  73. Kang, In-Sik*, June-Yi Lee, and Chung-Kyu Park, 2004: Potential predictability of summer mean precipitation in a dynamical seasonal prediction system with systematic error correction. J. Climate, 17, 834-844. 
  74. Lau, K.-M*., J.-Y. Lee, K.-M. Kim, and I.-S. Kang, 2004: The North Pacific as a regulator of summertime climate over Eurasia and North America. J. Climate 17, 819-833. 
  75. Wang, Bin*, In-Sik Kang, and June-Yi Lee, 2004: Ensemble simulations of Asian-Australian monsoon variabiliy by 11 AGCMs. J. Climate 17, 803-818. 
  76. Ho, Chang-Hoi*, June-Yi Lee, Myoung-Hwan Ahn, and Hee-Sang Lee, 2003: A sudden change in summer rainfall characteristics in Korea during the late 1970s. Int. J. Climatol. 23, 117-128. 
  77. Lee, June-Yi., In-Sik. Kang, and Chang-Hoi Ho, 1999: A statistical model for the long-range forecast of spring temperature in Korea. J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 35, 372-383.