Keith Rodgers

Keith Rodgers
Senior Research Fellow

Research Themes

  • Global Ocean Biogeochemistry
  • Carbon-Climate Feedbacks
  • Projecting Ecosystem Changes  under Climate Change
  • Ph.D. Oceanography, Columbia University (1998)
  • M.Phil., Oceanography, Columbia University (1997)
  • M. S., Engineering Mechanics, Columbia University (1992)
  • B.A. Physics, Reed College (1988) 
Work Experience
  • 2018-present:  IBS Center for Climate Physics, Busan, and Pusan National University
  • 2011-2018:  Research Scientist, AOS Program, Princeton University
  • 2005-2011:  Research Scholar, AOS Program, Princeton University
  • 2000-2005:  Post-doc, LODYC and LSCE, France
  • 1998-1999:  Post-doc, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Germany
  • 1992-1998:  Graduate Research Assistant, Columbia University
Research Interests
  • My research focuses on two main themes: the role of the ocean in the climate system, and the way in which climate change may impact ocean ecosystems.  
    • For the first of these themes, my primary interest is in understanding how the marine carbon cycle couples with the physical components of the climate system, and how this may impact or amplify the sensitivity of the climate system to increasing CO2 emissions.  
    • For the second theme, my current work focuses on applying large ensemble methods with Earth system models to better constrain how ecosystem stressors (warming, de-oxygenation, acidification) will evolve under future climate perturbations. 
  • Journal Articles
  1. Eddebbar, Y., K. Rodgers, M. Long, A. Subramanian, S.-P. Xie, and R. Keeling (2018), El Niño-like Physical and Biogeochemical Ocean Response to Tropical Eruptions, under review, Journal of Climate.
  2. Schlunegger, S., K.B. Rodgers, J.L. Sarmiento, T.L. Frölicher, J.P. Dunne, M. Ishii, and R. Slater (2018), Emergence of Anthropogenic Signals in the Ocean Carbon Cycle, under review at Nature Climate Change.
  3. B. Bronselaer, M. Winton, S. M. Griffies, W. J. Hurlin, K. B. Rodgers, O. V. Sergienko, R. J. Stouffer, J. l. Russell (2018), Change in future climate due to Antarctic meltwater, Nature.
  4. Fassbender, A. J., Rodgers, K. B., Palevsky, H. I., & Sabine, C. L. (2018). Seasonal asymmetry in the evolution of surface ocean pCO2 and pH thermodynamic drivers and the influence on sea-air CO2 flux. Global Biogeochemical Cycles
  5. Rodgers, K.B., P. Zhai, R.D. Slater, B.R. Carter, D.Iudicone, O. Aumont, J. Farmer, I. Frenger, A. Jacobson, Y. Plancherel, Y. Plancherel, L. Resplandy, and K. Toyama (2018), Western boundary currents and their extension regions as conduits for the ejection of bomb-radiocarbon from the thermocline, submitted to Global Biogeochemical Cycles.
  6. Resplandy, L., R.F. Keeling, C. Rödenbeck, B.B. Stephens, S. Khatiwala, K.B. Rodgers, M.C. Long, L. Bopp, and P.P. Tans (2018), Revision of global carbon fluxes based on a reassessment of oceanic and riverine carbon transport, Nature Geoscience.
  7. Ritter, R., P. Landschützer, N. Gruber, A.R. Fay, Y. Iida, S. Jones, S. Nakaoka, G.-H. Park, P. Peylin, C. Rödenbeck, K.B. Rodgers, J.D. Shutler, and J. Zeng (2017), Observation-Based Trends of the Southern Ocean Carbon Sink, Geophysical Research Letters, 44.
  8. Toyama, K., K.B. Rodgers, B. Blanke, D. Iudicone, M. Ishii, O. Aumont, and J.L. Sarmiento (2017), Large Re-emergence of Anthropogenic Carbon into the Ocean’s Surface Mixed Layer Sustained by the Ocean’s Overturning Circulation, Journal of Climate, 30, 8615-8631.
  9. Zhai, P., K.B. Rodgers, S.M. Griffies, R.D. Slater, D. Iudicone, and L. Resplandy (2017), Mechanistic drivers of re-emergence of anthropogenic carbon in the Equatorial Pacific, Geophys. Res. Lett., GRL56443, DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073758.
  10. Eddebbar, Y.A., M.C. Long, L. Resplandy, C. Rödenbeck K.B. Rodgers, M. Manizza, and R.F. Keeling (2017), Impacts of ENSO on air-sea oxygen exchange:  observations and mechanisms, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 31 doi:10.1002/2017GB005630.
  11. Carter, B.R., R.A. Feely, S. Mecking, J.N. Cross, A.m. Macdonald, S.A. Siedlecki, L.D. Talley, C.L. Sabine, F.J. Millero, J.H. Swift, A.G. Dickson, and K.B. Rodgers (2017), Two decades of Pacific anthropogenic carbon storage and ocean acidification along Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program sections P16 and P02, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 31, doi:10.1002/2016GB005485.
  12. Iudicone, D., K.B. Rodgers, Y. Plancherel, O. Aumont, T. Ito, R. Key, G. Madec and M. Ishii (2016), The formation of the ocean’s anthropogenic carbon reservoir, Sci. Rep. 6, 35473, doi:10.1038/srep35473.
  13. Frölicher, T.L., K.B. Rodgers, C. Stock, and W.W.L. Cheung (2016), Sources of uncertainties in 21st century projections of potential ocean ecosystem stressors, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 30, doi:10.1002/2015GB005338.
  14. Carter, B.R., T.L. Frölicher, J.P. Dunne, K.B. Rodgers, R.D. Slater, and J.L. Sarmiento (2016), Detecting Biogeochemical Ocean Acidification Impacts from Decadal Alkalinity Measurements, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30, doi:10.1002/2015GB005308.
  15. Cheung, W.W.L, T.L. Frölicher, R.G. Asch, M.C. Jones, M.L. Pinsky, G. Reygondeau, K.B. Rodgers, R.R. Rykaczewski, J.L. Sarmiento, C. Stock, and J.R. Watson (2016), Food for Thought:  Building confidence in projections of the responses of living marine resources to climate change, ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icejms/fsv250.
  16. Rodgers, K.B., J. Lin, and T.L. Frölicher (2015), Emergence of multiple ocean ecosystem drivers in a large ensemble suite with an Earth System Model, Biogeosciences, 12, 3301-3320.
  17. Nakano, H. M. Ishii, K.B. Rodgers, H. Tsujino, and G. Yamanaka (2015), Oceanic CO2 uptake, transport, storage, and dynamical controls imposed by the thermocline overturning circulation:  a modeling study, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 29, doi:10.1002/2015GB005128.
  18. Galbraith, E.D., J.P. Dunne, A. Gnanadesikan, R.D. Slater, J.L. Sarmiento, C. Dufour, G.F. de Souza, D. Bianchi, M. Claret, K.B. Rodgers, and S.S. Marvasti (2015), Complex functionality with minimal computation: promise and pitfalls of reduced-tracer ocean biogeochemistry models, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 07, doi:10.1002/2015MS000463.
  19. Rodgers, K.B., O. Aumont, S.E. Mikaloff Fletcher, D. Iudicone, L. Bopp, R.F. Keeling, G. Madec, C. de Boyer Montégut, Y. Plancherel, and R. Wanninkhof (2014), Strong sensitivity of Southern Ocean carbon uptake and nutrient cycling to wind stirring, Biogeosciences, 11, 4077-4098.
  20. Majkut, J.D., J.L. Sarmiento, and K.B. Rodgers (2014b), A growing oceanic carbon uptake:  results from an inversion study of surface pCO2data, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 28, doi:10.1002/2013GB004585.
  21. Majkut, J.D., B.R. Carter, T.L. Frölicher, C.O. Dufour, K.B. Rodgers, and J.L. Sarmiento (2014a), An observing system simulation for Southern Ocean CO2 uptake, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 372:20130046.
  22. Ishii, M., R.A. Feely, K.B. Rodgers, et al. (2014), Air-sea CO2 flux in the Pacific Ocean for the period 1990-2009, Biogeosciences, 11, 709-734.
  23. Plancherel, Y., K.B. Rodgers, R.M. Key, A.R. Jacobson, and J.L. Sarmiento (2013), Role of regression model selection and station distribution on the estimation of oceanic anthropogenic carbon change by eMLR, Biogeosciences, 10, 4801-4831.
  24. Rodgers, K.B., S.E. Mikaloff-Fletcher, D. Bianchi, C. Beaulieu, E.D. Galbraith, A. Gnanadesikan, A.G. Hogg, D. Iudicone, B. Lintner, T. Naegler, P.J. Reimer, J.L. Sarmiento, and R.D. Slater (2011), Interhemispheric gradient of atmospheric radiocarbon reveals natural variability of Southern Ocean Winds, Climate of the Past, 7, doi10.5194/cp-7-1123-2011.
  25. Galbraith, E.D., E.Y. Kwon, A. Gnanadesikan, K.B. Rodgers, S.M. Griffies, D. Bianchi, J.L. Sarmiento, J.P. Dunne, J. Simeon, R.D. Slater, A.T. Wittenberg, and I.M. Held (2011), The Impact of Climate Variability on the Distribution of Radiocarbon in CM2Mc, a New Earth System Model, J. Climate, 24, 4230-4254.
  26. Iudicone, D., K.B. Rodgers, I. Stendardo, O. Aumont, G. Madec, L. Bopp, O. Mangoni, and M.R. D’Alcala (2011), Watermasses as a unifying framework for understanding the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle, Biogeosciences, 8, 1031-1052, doi:10.5194/gb-8-1031-2011.
  27. Gorgues, T., O. Aumont, and K.B. Rodgers (2010), A mechanistic account of increasing seasonal variations in the rate of ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon, Biogeosciences, 7, 2581-2589.
  28. Sarmiento, J.L., M. Gloor, N. Gruber, C. Beaulieu, A.R. Jacobson, S.M. Fletcher, S. Pacala, and K. Rodgers (2010), Trends and regional distributions of land and ocean carbon sinks, Biogeosciences, 7, 2351-2367.
  29. Rodgers, K.B., R.M. Key, A. Gnanadesikan, J.L. Sarmiento, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, S.C. Doney, J.P. Dunne, D.M. Glover, A. Ishida, M. Ishii, A.R. Jacobson, C. Lo Monaco, E. Maier-Reimer, H. Mercier, N. Metzl, F.F. Pérez, A.F. Rios, R. Wanninkhof, P. Wetzel, C.D. Winn, and Y. Yamanaka (2009), Altimetry helps to explain patchy changes in hydrographic carbon measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C09013, doi:10.1029/2008JC005183.
  30. Rodgers, K.B., J.L. Sarmiento, C. Crevoisier, C. de Boyer Montegut, N. Metzl, and O. Aumont (2008), A wintertime uptake window for anthropogenic CO2 in the North Pacific, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB2020, doi:10.1029/2006GB002920.
  31. Rodgers, K.B., C. Menkes, T. Gorgues, and O. Aumont (2008), Decadal variations in equatorial Pacific ecosystems and ferrocline/pycnocline decoupling, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB2019, doi:10.1029/2006GB02919.
  32. Gorgues, T., C. Menkes, O. Aumont, K.B. Rodgers, G. Madec, and Y. Dandonneau (2007), Indonesian Throughflow control of the eastern equatorial Pacific biogeochemistry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L05609, doi:10.1029/2006GL028210.
  33. Iudicone, D., K.B. Rodgers, R. Schopp, and G. Madec (2007), An Exchange Window for the Injection of Antarctic Intermediate Water into the South Pacific, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 31-49.
  34. Laurian, A., A. Lazar, G. Reverdin, K.B. Rodgers, and P. Terray (2006), Poleward propagation of spiciness anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L13603, doi:10.1029/2006GL026155.
  35. Naegler, T., P. Ciais, K.B. Rodgers, and I. Levin (2006), Excess radiocarbon constraints on air-sea gas exchange and the uptake of CO2 by the oceans, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L11802, doi:10.1029/2005GL025408.
  36. Raynaud, S., O. Aumont, K.B. Rodgers, P. Yiou, and J.C. Orr (2006), Interannual-to-decadal variability of North Atlantic air-sea CO2 fluxes, Ocean Sci., 2, 43-60.
  37. Alory, G., S. Cravatte, T. Izumo, and K.B. Rodgers (2005), Validation of a decadal OGCM simulation for the tropical Pacific, Ocean Modelling, Vol. 10, Issues 3-4, 272-282.
  38. Orr, J.C., and coauthors (2005), Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms, Nature, Vol. 437, doi:10.1038/nature04, 681-686.
  39. Rodgers, K.B., P. Freiderichs, and M. Latif (2004), Tropical Pacific Decadal Variability and its relation to decadal modulations of ENSO, Journal of Climate, Vol. 17, No. 19, 3761-3774.
  40. Rodgers, K.B., O. Aumont, G. Madec, C. Menkes, B. Blanke, P. Monfray, J.C. Orr, and D.P. Schrag (2004), Radiocarbon as a thermocline proxy for the eastern equatorial Pacific, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L14314, doi:10.1029/2004GL019764.
  41. Colberg, F. C., J.C. Reason, and K.B. Rodgers (2004), South Atlantic response to ENSO induced climate variability, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C12015, doi:10.1029/2004JC002301.
  42. Rodgers, K.B., B. Blanke, G. Madec, O. Aumont, P. Ciais, and J.-C. Dutay (2003), Extratropical sources of Equatorial Pacific upwelling in an OGCM, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, L1084, doi:10.1029/2002GL016003.
  43. Rodgers, K.B., S. Charbit, M. Kageyama, G. Philippon, G. Ramstein, C. Ritz, J. Yin, G. Lohmann, S. Lorenz, and M. Khodri (2004), Sensitivity of Northern Hemispheric continental ice sheets to tropical SSTs during deglaciation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L02206, doi:10.1029/2003GL018375, 2004.
  44. J.C. Dutay, P. Jean-Baptiste, J.-M. Campin, A. Ishida, E. Maier-Reimer, R.J. Matear, A. Mouchet, I.J. Totterdell, Y. Yamanaka, K.B. Rodgers, G. Madec, and J.C. Orr (2004), Evaluation of OCMIP-2 Ocean Models’ Deep Circulation with Mantle Helium-3, Journal of Marine Systems, 48, 15-36.
  45. Rodgers, K.B., G. Lohmann, S. Lorenz, R. Schneider, and G.M. Henderson (2003), A tropical mechanism for Northern Hemisphere deglaciation, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 4(5), 1046, doi:10.1029/2003GC00508, 2003.
  46. Hazeleger, W., R. Seager, M. Visbeck, N. Naik, and K. Rodgers (2001), On the impact of the midlatitude storm track on the upper Pacific, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 616-636.
  47. Rodgers, K.B., M. Latif, and S. Legutke (2000), Sensitivity of equatorial Pacific and Indian Ocean watermasses to position of Indonesian Throughflow, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2941-2944.
  48. Rodgers, K.B., D.P. Schrag, M.A. Cane, and N.H. Naik (2000), The Bomb-14C Transient in the Pacific Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 104, No. C9, 20,551-20,570, 1999.
  49. Rodgers, K.B., M.A. Cane, N.H. Naik, and D.P. Schrag (1999), The role of the Indonesian Throughflow in equatorial Pacific thermocline ventilation, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 104, No. c9, 20,551-20,570.
  50. Rodgers, K.B., M.A. Cane, and D.P. Schrag (1997), Seasonal Variability of sea surface D14C in the Equatorial Pacific in an Ocean Circulation Model, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 102, No. 18, 18,627-18,639.
  51. Archer, D., T. Takahashi, S. Sutherland, J. Goddard, D. Chipman, K. Rodgers, and H. Ogura (1996), Daily, seasonal, and interannual variability of sea surface carbon and nutrient concentrations in the Equatorial Pacific, Deep Sea Res., 43, 779-808.
  52. Archer, D., M. Lyle, K. Rodgers, and P. Froelich (1993), What controls opal preservation in tropical deep sea sediments? Paleoceanography, Vol. 8, No. 1, 7-21.


  • Non-Peer Reviewed Articles


  1. Rodgers K.B., P. Zhai, D. Iudicone, O. Aumont, B. Carter, A.J. Fassbener, S.M. Griffies, Y. Plancherel, L. Resplandy, R.D. Slater, and K. Toyama (2017), Western boundary currents as conduits for the ejection of anthropogenic carbon from the thermocline, U.S. CLIVAR Variations, Vol. 15. No. 4, 6-10.